|Barley contains eight essential amino acids and is a popular food grain for baking and is known to regulate blood glucose. Over half of the United States' barley production is used as an animal feed. Barley is an important feed grain as a alternative to maize production.
- Hulled barley (or covered barley) is eaten after removing the inedible, fibrous outer hull. Considered a whole grain, dehulled barley still has its bran and germ making it a nutritious and popular health food.
- Pearl barley (or pearled barley) is dehulled barley which has been steam processed further to remove the bran. It may be polished, a process known as "pearling".
- Dehulled or pearl barley may be processed into a variety of barley products, including flour, flakes similar to oatmeal, and grits.
||Rice is the edible starchy cereal grain and the plant by which it is produced. Roughly one-half of the world population, including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia, is dependent upon rice as a staple food.
- The harvested rice kernel, known as paddy, is enclosed by the hull, or husk.
- Rice that is processed to remove only the husks, called brown rice
- Rice that is milled to remove the bran as well is called white rice
- By-products of milling, including bran and rice polish, are used as livestock feed
||Wheat classifications each have different characteristics, such as protein content, bran coat color, and milling and baking qualities. These characteristics determine the best end-uses for each type of wheat. "Soft" and "Hard" refer to the density of the wheat kernel.
- Hard Red Winter & Hard Red Spring: Yeast breads, hard rolls, and bagels
- Soft White & Soft Red Winter: Pastries, pancakes, cakes, cookies, crackers, flat breads, and cereals
- Hard White: Yeast breads and Asian noodles
- Durum: Pasta